How are objects recorded?

I've done work with the Field Museum in Chicago to teach Boy Scouts about archaeology for their Archaeology Merit Badge, and one thing we do is practice labeling objects that we find. I always tell them that this is one of the most important parts when you are on a dig so that archaeologists can go back and tell where something was found-because after you move it, you can never put it back in the exact same place. In Ashkelon, we record the location of four major things-pottery, bones, material cultures, and soil samples (so they can check for plants/seeds/food remains). I asked one of our square supervisors, Rebecca, to explain what actually goes on the tag when something is found. After the tag is made, they go through with our Geographic Information System (GIS) team to record the exact location it was found in the grid and mark it on the map of our grid.